As the process continued, a crowd gathered and with each moment it became more and more unruly. The unit was mustered out of Federal Service on August 2, 1861. Baltimore, April 19, 1861, 10:00AM. Since Annapolis, the capital, was occupied by Federal troops, and Baltimore was harboring many pro-Confederate mobs, Hicks directed the legislature to meet in Frederick, in the predominantly Unionist western part of the state. Union Protestant Infirmary (now MedStar Union Memorial Hospital) established. Virginia’s secession was particularly significant due to the state’s industrial capacity. Sometime after leaving Philadelphia, the unit’s Colonel Edward F. Jones received information that passage through Baltimore “would be resisted”. By that time Maryland was an occupied state, and the choice no longer existed. The American Civil War began on April 12, one week before the riot. Less well known is the story of other men from Major General John Adams Dix succeeded Banks in command of the Department of Annapolis, and Colonel Abram Duryée’s 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, “Duryée’s Zouaves,” constructed Fort Federal Hill, Baltimore. The Baltimore Riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was an incident that took place on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland between Confederate sympathizers and infantrymen of the United States Army. I certainly regard it as sufficient legal cause for suspending the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.” Moreover, Morris wrote, “If, in an experience of thirty-three years, you have never before known the writ to be disobeyed, it is only because such a contingency in political affairs as the present has never before arisen.”. On April 19, 1861, only five days after the surrender of Fort Sumter, the situation in Baltimore exploded into violence. Baltimore, Carroll, and Frederick Railroad organized, later became Western Maryland Railroad. George William Brown, the mayor of Baltimore, had come to his law office that Friday morning hoping to get caught up on paperwork. The Governor and Mayor called out the militia to prevent further bloodshed. However, as Lincoln remarked to a peace delegation from the Young Men’s Christian Association, Union soldiers were neither birds to fly over Maryland, nor moles to burrow under it. — ADavidB 05:40, 14 July 2012 (UTC) Ah, but a great many of these hits come up due to the title of the Wikipedia article! Notes - … Many also felt that Maryland should not permit troops to pass through the state to attack a sister state, and others mistrusted the President's intentions, suspecting that the troops would be used to force Maryland to remain in the Union. JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY STUDIES IN Historical and Political Science HERBERT B. ADAMS, Editor History is past Politics and Politics present History.— Cannon were placed in the works so that they could be fired on the city. Maryland, My Maryland! On April 17, the Sixth Massachusetts Militia departed from Boston, Massachusetts, arriving in New York the following morning and Philadelphia by nightfall. The 6th Massachusetts Infantry arrived at the President Street Station and began the process of changing trains. When a threat was made against Fort McHenry, one of the militia units was sent to help the U.S. Army defend it. Mayor Brown and Maryland Governor Hicks implored President Lincoln to send no further troops through Maryland to avoid further confrontations. On April 19, the unit headed on to Baltimore, where they anticipated a slow transit through the city. While the battle of Ft Sumter saw no deaths on either side, the Baltimore Riots saw the first deaths of the civil war. References: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baltimore_riot_of_1861. Banks appointed Colonel John Reese Kenly of the 1st Regiment Maryland Volunteer Infantry as provost marshal to superintend the Baltimore police; Kenly enrolled, organized, and armed 250 Unionists for a new police. The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was an incident that took place on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland between Confederate sympathizers and members of the Massachusetts militia en route to Washington for Federal service. That flecked the streets of Baltimore, Hicks and the Mayor of Annapolis protested, but Butler (a clever politician) bullied them into allowing troops to land at Annapolis, saying, “‘I must land, for my troops are hungry.’—’No one in Annapolis will sell them anything,’ replied these authorities of the State and city. 1854-1859. Knowing that there were secessionists in the militia ranks, the commander of the Fort accepted the help on the condition that the militia could come no closer to the Fort than the Catholic chapel a half mile from the Fort or he would fire on them. As a result of the riot in Baltimore and pro-Southern sympathies of much of the city’s populace, the Baltimore Steam Packet Company also declined the same day a Federal government request to transport Union forces to relieve the beleaguered Union naval yard facility at Portsmouth, Virginia. Baltimore 1861 Dennis Ahern will address this topic at the Boston Public Library Orientation Room, McKim Building 230 Dartmouth Street, Copley Square Wednesday, October 12th at 6:00 p.m. Every year, on April 19th, we are reminded of the minutemen who went to the bridge in Concord in 1775. Baltimore, MD On the afternoon of April 18, 1861, Baltimore Mayor George W. Brown dispatched a strong letter of warning to Abraham Lincoln. Was this the worst riot in Maryland history?I know that the civil disorders in Baltimore in 1968 was bad,but the one in 1861 looks like a Civil War battlefield.Were people smashing windows like they were in The New York Draft Riots in 1861? At Gay Street some of the mob began tearing up paving stones and throwing them at the soldiers. His torch is at thy temple door, In the previous year’s presidential election, Abraham Lincoln had received only 1,100 of more than 30,000 votes cast in the city. It produced the first deaths by hostile action in the … On April 18, 460 newly mustered Pennsylvania volunteers (generally from the Pottsville, Pennsylvania area) arrived from Harrisburg on the Northern Central Railway at the Bolton Street Station off North Howard Street (present site of the later Fifth Regiment Armory). They split off from Howard Street in downtown Baltimore and marched over east to Fort McHenry and reported for duty there. After the riot had ended, Baltimore mayor George W. Brown and Maryland Governor Thomas H. Hicks determined that no more federal troops should pass through the city, siding with the rioters. National Park Service. Secessionist sympathy was strong in Baltimore, a border state metropolis. Major Morris, the commanding officer at Fort McHenry, suspended the Habeas Corpus privleges of those prisoners. Share. When Fort Sumter fell (without casualties) on April 13, the Virginia legislature took up a measure on secession. Needham is buried in Lawrence, Massachusetts. 2400 East Fort Avenue On July 10, 1861, a grand jury of the United States District Court indicted Samuel Mactier, Lewis Bitter, James McCartney, Philip Casmire, Michael Hooper and Richard H. Mitchell for their part in the riot. Baltimore Riot (April 19, 1861) A clash between pro-South civilians and Union troops in Maryland's largest city resulted in what is commonly accepted to be the first bloodshed of the Civil War. In the end, the soldiers got to the Camden Station, and the police were able to block the crowd from them. The despot's heel is on thy shore, There were calls for Maryland to declare secession in the wake of the riot. The frightened officers ordered the troops to fire into the crowd. Marshal Kane put his policemen between the two groups and escorted the troops to Camden Station, where they boarded the train and left Baltimore. Just before daybreak on June 27, soldiers marched from Ft. McHenry on orders from Major General Nathaniel P. Banks, who had succeeded Cadwalader as commander of the Department of Annapolis, and arrested Marshal George P. Kane. It produced the first deaths by hostile action in the American Civil War. On the evening of April 20 Hicks also authorized Brown to dispatch the Maryland state militia for the purpose of disabling the railroad bridges into the city—an act he would later deny. The Baltimore Riot of 1861 . Rail cars that transferred between the two stations had to be pulled by horses along Pratt Street. Maryland, My Maryland. Congressman from Baltimore. The 6th Massachusetts Infantry arrived at the President Street Station and began the process of changing trains. After the attack on the soldiers, the office of the Baltimore Wecker, a German-language newspaper, was completely wrecked and the building seriously damaged by the same mob. On April 19, 1861, the first blood of the American Civil War is shed when a secessionist mob in Baltimore attacks Massachusetts troops bound for Washington, D.C. … Their discontent increased in the days afterward when Lincoln put out a call for volunteers to serve 90 days and end the insurrection. Following are telegraph dispatches regarding the Baltimore Riot, also known as the Pratt Street Riot, of April 19th, 1861, as reported in the April 24, 1861, issue of The Hudson North Star. While there may have been accidents, and maybe a secessionist shot or two during their tour, wounding men of the 6th, the majority of the casualties occurred in the Riot. The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the "Pratt Street Riots" and the "Pratt Street Massacre") was a civil conflict on Friday, April 19, 1861, on Pratt Street, in Baltimore, Maryland. The status of Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky (later known as “border states”), remained unknown. They were joined by several regiments of regular United States Army troops under John C. Pemberton (later the Confederate general and commander at the siege of Vicksburg in Mississippi whose surrender in July 1863, resulted in the first split of the Confederacy) returning from duty on the western frontier. Someone fired a shot. Also known as the Pratt Street Riot, only one week had passed since the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter.. Maryland and nearby Delaware were border states.These were the states exposed to Northern influences and culture, but with a Southern exposure too —and numerous Confederate sympathizers. Many more Union troops arrived. Created / Published c1862. entered the city and built earthworks on Federal Hill. The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was a conflict on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland, between anti-War Democrats (the largest party in Maryland), as well as Confederate sympathizers, and members of the Massachusetts militia enroute to Washington for Federal service. The Riot On April 19, 1861, only five days after the surrender of Fort Sumter, the situation in Baltimore exploded into violence. After the April 19 riot, some small skirmishes occurred throughout Baltimore between citizens and police for the next month, but a sense of normalcy returned as the city was cleaned up. While many disliked the idea of secession, they felt that it was a state's right to secede from the union if it chose to. At this time the legislature seems to have wanted to maintain Maryland’s neutrality in the conflict. Civilians who had demonstrated secessionist sympathies were arrested and taken to Fort McHenry, where they were held without charge. Governor Hicks called a special session of the state legislature to consider the situation. Seven hundred “National Volunteers” of southern sympathizers rallied at the Washington Monument and traveled to the station to confront the combined units of troops, which unbeknownst to them were unarmed and had weapons unloaded.Kane’s city police force generally succeeded in ensuring the Pennsylvania troops’ safe passage marching south on Howard Street to Camden Street Station of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. A Brief History. It is regarded by historians as the first bloodshed of the … He was replaced as commander of the Department of Annapolis by George Cadwalader, another Brigadier General in the United States Volunteers. James Ryder Randall, a teacher in Louisiana but a native Marylander who had lost a friend in the riots, wrote “Maryland, My Maryland” for the Southern cause in response to the riots. THE BALTIMORE RIOTS, APRIL, 1861 By EDWARD G. EVERETT* A CCORDING to twentieth-century historians of the Civil War, Pennsylvania would not qualify as a border state, for today the term border state denotes slave states that remained loyal to the Union. The Mayor bravely attempted to stop the battle without success. Background 1854. All but two of the cars had been transferred when the crowd blocked the tracks with timbers and anchors. On July 10, George R. Dodge, a civilian, was appointed as marshal of police. The Civil War's First DeadWith 12 Baltimoreans Killed In The Bloody Pratt Street Riot The most significant action of the Civil War may have occurred in Baltimore on 19 April 1861 during the Pratt Street Riots, which directly caused 17 known deaths and at … On April 19, Major General Robert Patterson, commander of the Department of Washington (Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia), ordered Brigadier General Benjamin Franklin Butler, with the 8th Massachusetts, to open and secure a route from Annapolis through Annapolis Junction to Washington. The cars were disconnected and pulled by horses down Pratt Street to Camden Station. 1855. The participants were Confederate sympathizers and members of the Massachusetts Militia who were en route to Washington, D.C. to report for federal service. In 1861, most Baltimoreans were anti-War, and did not support a violent conflict with their southern neighbors. April 19, 1861: The Baltimore Riot. The publisher later returned and resumed publication of the Wecker which continued throughout the war a firm supporter of the Union cause. Baltimore riot of 1861. Baltimore fell under military rule. The mob attacked the rear companies of the regiment with “bricks, paving stones, and pistols.” In response, several soldiers fired into the mob, beginning a giant brawl between the soldiers, the mob, and the Baltimore police. Many sympathized passionately with the Southern cause. Because of an ordinance preventing the construction of steam rail lines through the city, there was no direct rail connection between the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad’s President Street Station and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad’s Camden Station (ten blocks to the west). Rioters, soldiers, and innocent bystanders fell dead and wounded. The Riot The Pratt Street Riot was over. The regiment had left behind much of their equipment, including their marching band’s instruments. The riot resulted in the first casualty list of the war. Topic. On April 19, 1861 in Baltimore, Maryland the Baltimore Riot of 1861 also known at the Pratt Street Riot or the Pratt Street Massacre occurred. In May, less than a month after the riot, General Butler and the 6th Mass. To add the foregoing, an assembly elected in defiance of law, but claiming to be the legislative body of your State, and so recognized by the Executive of Maryland, was debating the Federal compact. It produced the first deaths by hostile action in the American Civil War. Rise of Know Nothing Party; Baltimore riots named city "Mobtown." But that night, the Pennsylvania troops, later known as “The First Defenders” camped at the U.S. Capitol under the uncompleted dome, which was under construction. Sumner Henry Needham is sometimes considered to be the first Union casualty of the war, though he was killed by civilians in a Union state. This incident, between members of the 6th Massachusetts Infantry traveling through Baltimore to Washington, D.C., and Southern sympathizers, is considered by many to be the … 21230. It is regarded by historians as the first bloodshed of the American Civil War. Result:Confederate sympathisers ultimately suppressed. Instead, like so many other Baltimoreans, he found himself engrossed in the events of the day before, and the speculation about what lie ahead. File:Baltimore Riot 1861.jpg. Four soldiers (Corporal Sumner Needham of Co I and Privates Luther C. Ladd, Charles Taylor, and Addison Whitney of Company D) and twelve civilians were killed in the riot. The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the "Pratt Street Riots" and the "Pratt Street Massacre") was a civil conflict on Friday, April 19, 1861, on Pratt Street, (beginning at the President Street Station and President Street and continuing ending on Howard Street at the Camden Street Station) in Baltimore, Maryland, between antiwar "Copperheads" Democrats (the largest party … On April 19, 1861, only five days after the surrender of Fort Sumter, the situation in Baltimore exploded into violence. At 1 a.m. on April 19, 1861, the men of the 6th Massachusetts Volunteer Militia were asleep on the floors of the Girard House Hotel in Philadelphia when the long roll sounded. “The people are exasperated to the highest degree by the passage of troops,” Brown wrote, “and the citizens are universally decided in the opinion that no more should be ordered to come. One of the militia leaders was John Merryman, who was arrested one month later, and held in defiance of a writ of habeas corpus, which led to the case of Ex parte Merryman. April 19, 2018 by DickH Posted in History 2 Comments Mural of Baltimore Riot of Apr 19, 1861 at Massachusetts State House. The 8th Massachusetts, with the 7th New York, proceeded to Annapolis Junction (halfway between Baltimore and Washington), and the 7th New York went on to Washington, where, on the afternoon of April 25, they became the first troops to reach the capital by this route. Lincoln subsequently had the mayor, police chief, entire Board of Police, and the city council of Baltimore imprisoned without charges, as well as one sitting U.S. The Baltimore Riots happened April 19, 1861. The two cars returned to the President Street Station and the soldiers disembarked to the howls and jeers of the mob. A Google search of "Baltimore riot of 1861" shows me 123,000 results, while "Pratt Street riot" gives 79,800. The Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, who was also a native of Maryland, ruled on June 4, 1861 in ex parte Merryman that Lincoln’s suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional, but Lincoln ignored the ruling, and later when Baltimore newspaper editor Frank Key Howard, Francis Scott Key’s grandson, criticized this in an editorial he too was imprisoned without trial. New militia units from several Northern states were starting to transport themselves south, particularly to protect Washington, D.C., from the new Confederate threat in Virginia. Attack on the Massachusetts 6th at Baltimore, April 19, 1861 Summary Men fighting with guns, clubs, stones, etc. The Baltimore riot of 1968 was a period of civil unrest that lasted from April 6 to April 14, 1968, in Baltimore.The uprising included crowds filling the streets, burning and looting local businesses, and confronting the police and national guard. Baltimore Riot of 1861. Luther C. Ladd, one of the 6th Massachusetts soldiers to die in Baltimore on April 19, 1861 . The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was an incident that took place on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland between Confederate sympathizers and members of the Massachusetts militia en route to … The publisher, William Schnauffer, and the editor, Wilhelm Rapp, whose lives were threatened, were compelled to leave town. Some Southerners reacted with passion to the incident. Butler intimated that armed men were not always limited to the necessity of purchasing food when famished.”. Nevertheless, stones and bricks were hurled (along with many insults) and Nicholas Biddle, a Black servant traveling with the regiment, was hit on the head. Sympathetic Marylanders, who had supported secession ever since John C. Calhoun spoke of nullification, agitated to join Virginia in leaving the Union. The 6th Massachusetts Infantry arrived at the President Street Station and began the process of changing trains. At the time, the slave states of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas had not yet seceded from the U.S. On April 19, 1861, an angry mob with pro-secessionist intentions attacked US Army troops on the streets of Baltimore, an event known as The Baltimore Riot of 1861, or alternately as The Pratt Street Riot or even the more dramatic Pratt Street Massacre. They begged President Abraham Lincoln to bring troops to Washington via an alternative route, but as Lincoln drily noted, his soldiers could not fly or burrow under the state; … Citizens threw stones and bricks and fired shots at the soldiers. (Ironically, federal troops imprisoned the young newspaper editor in Fort McHenry, which, as he noted, was the same fort where the Star Spangled Banner had been waving “o’er the land of the free” in his grandfather’s song.) Finally, in June, 1861, Maryland voted on secession. Kentucky declared its neutrality (although it would eventually join the Union’s side), and although Missouri seceded from the Union on October 31 and was later occupied, a Confederate government-in-exile existed in Arkansas and Texas. A man supposed to be a Maryland State Militia soldier was detained in Ft. McHenry, and Judge Giles, in Baltimore, issued a writ of habeas corpus, but Major W. W. Morris, commander of the fort, wrote back, “At the date of issuing your writ, and for two weeks previous, the city which you live, and where your court has been held, was entirely under the control of revolutionary authorities. In Brown’s later assessment, it was the Baltimore riot that pushed the two sides over the edge into full-scale war, “because then was shed the first blood in a conflict between the North and the South; then a step was taken which made compromise or retreat almost impossible; then passions on both sides were aroused which could not be controlled”. The city was also home to the country’s largest population (25,000) of free African Americans, as well as many white abolitionists and supporters of the Union. Eight rioters, one innocent bystander and three soldiers were killed, twenty four soldiers and an unknown number of civilians wounded. The legislature met on April 26; on April 29, it voted 53–13 against secession, though it also voted not to reopen rail links with the North, and requested that Lincoln remove the growing numbers of federal troops in Maryland. Baltimore Mayor George William Brown and new Police Marshal (chief) George Proctor Kane anticipated trouble and began efforts to placate the city’s population. They had gone through the Baltimore Riot on April 19, 1861, as Massachusetts Militia. Coincidentally, it was about the same time that the alarm bell had been rung in Concord, Massachusetts on April 19, 1775 warning of… Lincoln’s opponents were infuriated (and supporters disappointed) when the president-elect, fearing an assassination plot, traveled secretly through the city in February enroute to his inauguration. Because of this large-scale arrest of state representatives the legislative session was canceled, and no further debate on anti-war measures or secession could take place. However, the mob followed the soldiers, breaking store windows and causing damage until they finally blocked the soldiers. If all this be not rebellion, I know not what to call it. Within that period United States soldiers, while committing no offense, had been perfidiously attacked and inhumanly murdered in your streets; no punishment had been awarded, and, I believe, no arrests had been made for these crimes; supplies of provisions intended for this garrison has been stopped; the intention to capture this fort had been boldly proclaimed; your most public thoroughfares were daily patrolled by large numbers of troops, armed and clothed, at least in part, with articles stolen from the United States; and the Federal flag, while waving over the Federal offices, was cut down by some person wearing the uniform of a Maryland soldier. In 1863 Howard wrote about his experience as a political prisoner at Fort McHenry in the book Fourteen Months in the American Bastille; two of the publishers selling the book were then arrested. This angered the mob further, and they began to attack the soldiers with considerable ferocity. Military conflicts similar to or like Baltimore riot of 1861. Baltimore quickly felt the effects of the riot. And be the battle queen of yore, When it became apparent that they could travel by horse no further, the troops got out of the cars and marched in formation through the city. The poem was later set to “Lauriger Horatius”, the tune of O Tannenbaum, a melody popular in the South, and referred to the riots with lines such as “Avenge the patriotic gore / That flecked the streets of Baltimore.” It was not until seventy-eight years later that it became Maryland’s state song; there have been efforts to remove it since. Image 1 of Baltimore and the nineteenth of April 1861; a study of the war. Supporters of secession and slavery organized themselves into a force called “National Volunteers” while unionists and abolitionists called themselves “Minute Men.”. Its Effects About 36 of the regiment were also wounded and left behind. March 20, 2011 On April 15th,1861, President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 troops in response to the rebellion that had commenced three days earlier when Confederate forces fired … According to his later report, Jones went through the railroad cars and gave this order: Indeed, as the militia regiment transferred between stations, a mob of anti-War supporters and Southern sympathizers attacked the train cars and blocked the route. Following the secession of the southern States and the bombardment of Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln called for 75,000 men to be raised from the militia of the states in order to put down the rebellion. At this time, the most efficient means to transport such large numbers of men was by rail, and the only routes to Washington passed through Baltimore. Maryland! The 8th Massachusetts arrived by ship at Annapolis on April 20. The soldiers returned the fire. Baltimore riot of 1861 is similar to these military conflicts: 6th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, Timeline of Baltimore in the 19th century, President Street Station and more. Taylor was buried in Baltimore; though his grave was lost, his name appears on the Lowell Monument. Delaware, bordering Maryland, was reinforced with Union troops to prevent similar events. On April 19, 1861, just one week after the attack on Fort Sumter by Confederate forces marked the beginning of the Civil War, a train carrying Union volunteers with the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment pulled into the Philadelphia, Wilmington and… The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was a conflict on April 19, 1861, in Baltimore, Maryland, between anti-War Democrats (the largest party in Maryland), as well as Confederate sympathizers, and members of the Massachusetts militia en route to Washington for Federal service. Ladd and Whitney are buried in Lowell, Massachusetts. The troops then marched back down Pratt Street, led by a man carrying a rebel flag, and followed by the mob. The editor moved to another paper in Illinois. It is unknown how many additional civilians were injured. 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