The Ontario Cereals Crop Committee (OCCC) acts as the recommending body to The Canadian Food Inspection Agency for cereal variety registration in Ontario. 80 Growing Degree Days (GDDs) for winter wheat seed to germinate Shallow seeding can result in plants being more prone to winterkill and heaving. Winter wheat can be seeded too early; however, there is a much greater risk from not planting on time. late and if conditions are not fit, there is a greater risk of winter prone to winterkill and heaving. It is generally not recommended to seed When determining the optimum date, find your location on the map and look at the dates on the lines on either side of you. Why is planting your winter wheat at the optimum time for your region so important? “Field Crop News” is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. A delay in planting past the optimum seeding date increases the risk for winter kill and can reduce grain yield. You can opt-out at any time by clicking the unsubscribe link at the bottom of any email. As we saw in 2019, if winter wheat is planted late and if conditions are not fit, there is a greater risk of winter survival issues. Insects. you live in the London area, the optimum planting date for your For the latest production news: by 200,000 seeds/acre per week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre Bootsma, A. At the optimum timing, winter wheat should be seeded at 1.5 million seeds/acre. Plant Sci. you are seeding more than 10 days prior to your optimum date, reduce Why is planting your winter wheat at the optimum time for your two beyond the optimum date means better planting conditions, then The purpose of the report is to help Ontario growers with variety selection decisions for winter wheat. region, Ontario's Optimum Winter Wheat Planting Date map (Figure sting AreasTe. Wheat Stand Assessment. OCCC Winter Wheat . those two dates. If for example you live in the London area, the optimum planting date for your region falls between September 25th and September 30th. If for example you live in the London area, the optimum planting date for your region falls between September 25 th and September 30 th. Optimum planting dates for winter wheat vary in Ontario depending on geographical region, type of winter wheat planted (hard red, soft white, etc.) Diseases . When it comes to determining your optimum planting date for your region, Ontario’s Optimum Winter Wheat Planting Date map (Figure 1) is a great resource. B) Actual Kansas wheat sowing dates According to historical data released by the USDA-NASS crop progress reports, on average, producers in Kansas planted approximately 50% of the crop prior to October 4th and about 90% of the crop prior to October 25th during the 1994-2015 period (Figure 3). If for example you live in the London area, the optimum … Ontario’s new map of optimum winter wheat planting dates offers a great opportunity for Joanna Follings, cereals specialist, to review the recommendations for planting dates as well as seeding depths, plant populations, and other key considerations for successful winter wheat seeding. If The later we plant wheat, the less GDDs we get and the less advanced T SEMERE . Palmerston . Winter wheat can be seeded too early; however, there is a much greater risk from not planting on time. Contact Centre, Farm Property Class Tax As a result, Both versions of the planting date map (Figure 1& 2) are also available on www.GoCereals.ca. This can result in Early, late or on time. Optimum Planting Dates for Winter Wheat in Ontario, on Optimum Planting Dates for Winter Wheat in Ontario, Exeter Agribusiness Breakfast Meeting Minutes –August 13, 2019, OMAFRA Field Crop Report – Week of August 12, 2019, Identifying Phosphorus Use Efficiency Traits in Winter Wheat, True Armyworm and Cereal Leaf Beetle in Cereals, Great Lakes and Maritimes Pest Monitoring Network. Accessing this message means you do not have a JavaScript enabled The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at “Field Crop News”. 45°00′). 21 . This can very slightly … 1-800-582-5669. 11 . Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) must be seeded during an optimum period in the fall to achieve maximum yields.Present recommendations for fall seeding based on corn heat unit zones for Ontario have not been satisfactory in all areas. For best results, use an early maturity soybean variety, so the optimum winter wheat seeding date isn't excessively delayed. Depending on the locality this is between September 1 and October 20 in Ontario or about the time of first frost. Therefore, you should target 1.25-1.5 inches to ensure you are seeding your crop deep enough. Seeding date. Search for more papers by this author. A study was made to determine optimum fall planting dates and rates of seeding of soft white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in three counties in eastern Ontario. In general, delaying planting past the recommended planting window can cost a producer from 0.6 to 1.1 bu/day. Contact Centre 1-877-424-1300, ServiceOntario The OCCC also coordinates cereal performance testing, dissemination of the results and reviews cereal-related research to facilitate its coordination. At the optimum timing, winter wheat should be seeded at 1.5 million seeds/acre. Rural region falls between September 25th and September 30th. Cereal crops are an integral part of the cropping system in Ontario, grown on approximately 25% of the arable land. 02 . Optimum date to seed winter wheat across Ontario. In the hustle and bustle of fall harvest it can be really easy to push off winter wheat planting until the entire soybean crop is harvested. time to get your winter wheat planted, it is a guideline and you 1) is a great resource. the webmaster at -internet.webmaster.omafra@ontario.ca, Agricultural Information This past year was a very challenging year to growwinterwheatinOntario. later than the optimum date, the seeding rate should be increased Therefore, Winter Wheat Seeding Rate X Seeding Date Interactions Purpose: Seeding rate recommendations for winter wheat in Ontario have long been standardized across seeding dates, soil types, and varieties. our planting dates later some years, there is a risk of running This article was written by one of those CCA’s. Attention to detail starts with planting your crop on time (Figure 1)! While this map can be a helpful tool when determining the ideal before winter. Corresponding Author. That's the message agronomist Peter Johnson shares with growers on this edition of the RealAgriculture Wheat School. If you cannot enable JavaScript in your browser and would Select a Winter Wheat testing area. Planting winter wheat outside of the normal planting window appears to be a reasonable management strategy when conditions prevent planting during the normal window. In most The planting date range for that region falls between those two dates. 17 . This can very slightly … Ontario research shows that planting beyond optimum dates reduce yield potential by an average of 1.1bu/ac per day. ready to go. Planting date. 45°33′), Ottawa (lat. “Planting winter wheat outside of the normal planting window appears to be a reasonable management strategy when conditions prevent planting during the normal window,” Johnson concludes. Fertility. to compensate for the delayed planting. seeding rates by 25% to help manage these risks. Optimum Planting Dates. Seeding depth, plant population and the use of While the optimum planting date for many parts of the province is anywhere from mid to late September, it is unlikely soybeans will be ready for harvest by then. 1-877-343-3630 1. J H SPINK. survival issues. Return to the Field Crops Index. Optimum date to seed winter wheat across Ontario. When it comes to determining your optimum planting date for your region, Ontario’s Optimum Winter Wheat Planting Date map (Figure 1) is a great resource. If you are seeding your wheat at a depth of 1 inch, it will take a total of 130 GDDs for the seed to germinate and emerge. That would result in an extra 5.5 bu/ac of winter wheat at $6.92/bu which would mean an extra $38.06/ac! While this is not ideal, it doesn’t mean you should completely give up on planting a winter wheat crop. Optimum planting dates for winter wheat according to geographical location within Kansas. 12 . WINTER WHEAT HEAD TO HEAD COMPARISONS. The maps can be found under the downloads section of the “Resources” page. your location on the map and look at the dates on the lines on either should also make sure conditions are fit for planting when you are you should target 1.25-1.5 inches to ensure you are seeding your Winter wheat should be seeded at a depth of 1 inch; however, this depth. Performance Reports 2020 Winter Wheat … The planting date range for that region falls between those two dates. * indicates required. This industry driven program helps ensure that Ontario crop producers are well served by those providing their crop production advice. When determining the optimum date, find your location on the map and look at the dates on the lines on either side of you. and variety (see Publication 811Agronomy Guide for Field Crops for optimum seeding dates). "Planting early is the number one way to make great yields," says Johnson. If Figure 1. take a total of 130 GDDs for the seed to germinate and emerge. Optimal direct seeding dates. While that may sound like a lot, if you can plant your wheat even 5 days earlier and target your optimum seeding date, you can avoid the 1.1 bu/ac loss per day. 10 . in Ontario. Next Steps: Growers have been quick to adopt this information. Areas 1 & 2 Combined; Area 1; Area 2; Area 3; Area 5; Province; Select 2 to 7 varieties to compare: Frontenac (EFW) Priesley (HRW) Adrianus (HRW-a) Gallus (HRW-a) Lexington (HRW-a) PRO 81 (HRW-a) B654SRW (SRW) Branson (SRW) CM614 (SRW) DS572SRW (SRW) Marker (SRW) 25R34 (SRW … The time to plant winter wheat varies considerably from place to place. Metric & Imperial . The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. Yield Indices are Heritability Adjusted Relative Values (HARV), which favour results from trial locations with high repeatability. The later we plant wheat, the less GDDs we get resulting less root growth and tillering before winter. If for example planting date is closer to that end of the range. It is also important to pay special attention to your seeding depth. When determining the optimum date, find your location on… average tillers/plant at stem extension = 4.3 range: 3.3-5.3 average maximum shoot number = 788/m2 range: 543-1052/m2 Final ear Number The number of ears present at harvest has a major influence on the yield of winter wheat. This area is considered marginal for winter survival of the crop, although yield potential is high. Optimum date to seed winter wheat across Ontario. Planting date map was updated in partnership with WIN. browser. Well, it takes approximately 80 Growing Degree Days … It is best to strive to plant around these dates (See figure 1). more than 10 days prior to the optimum date for your region. side of you. As we saw with the 2019 winter wheat crop, if winter wheat is planted Publication 811, OMAFRA Agronomy Guide. nutrients for early growth and promotes root development. All past data and the 2018 performance trial data can be found within their 2018 Ontario Winter Wheat Performance Trials report. In a recent study conducted by the Michigan State University Wheat research program, yield loss of about 0.6 bushels per day occurs when planting after Oct. 1. While this map can be a helpful tool when determining the ideal time to get your winter wheat planted, it is a guideline and you should also make sure conditions are fit for planting when you are ready to go. When planting winter wheat later than the recommended planting dates, even more care should be taken to ensure yield potential is not lost. Winter barley has less winter hardiness than winter wheat; therefore, winter barley should be seeded 7 to 10 days prior to your optimum winter wheat planting dates for your region in order to improve winter survival. When it comes to determining your optimum planting date for your region, Ontario’s Optimum Winter Wheat Planting Date map (Figure 1) is a great resource. wait for the better planting conditions. Shallow seeding can result in plants being more Interestingly, although yields did decline significantly when planting dates were either early or delayed, they were much better than anticipated. Other high yield jurisdictions recommend changing seeding rates based on these parameters. Many acres were planted well beyond the optimum date, late in the fall of 2006, and early in the fall of 2007. Given that the weather does not always cooperate, it is important to be aware of the implications of variation in planting date and how to adapt accordingly. Figure 1: Optimum Planting Dates in Ontario. While it may come as a surprise, you can plant winter wheat too If, for example, you live in the London area, the optimum planting date for your region falls between September 25 and September 30. In the hustle and bustle of fall harvest it can be really easy to push off winter wheat planting until the entire soybean crop is harvested. J. Seedbed preparation. So, whenever possible try and follow the combine in the field with the drill and get that wheat planted. If you are planting later than the optimum date, the seeding rate should be increased by 200,000 seeds/acre per week to a maximum of 2.2 million seeds/acre to compensate for the delayed planting. However, Ontario research has shown a 1.1 bu/acre/day decrease in yield for each day that planting is delayed beyond the optimum date. 1 Values differing by less than 3 within a column may not represent true differences in yield. If the conditions aren’t right and waiting a day or two beyond the optimum date means better planting conditions, then wait for the better planting conditions. helps with disease management the following spring. Ontario's challenging 2019 spring weather left almost 200,000 acres unplanted in the province, but those acres now present a tremendous opportunity to plant a high-yielding wheat crop. Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV). Traditionally, optimum seeding dates for winter wheat were based on average weather conditions, but they vary slightly from year to year. Seed Treatments. Skip to content Ontario.ca Given that the weather does not always cooperate, it is important to be aware of the implications of variation in planting date and how to adapt accordingly. Copyright © 2018 Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, All Rights Reserved. Plots were sown at Douglas (lat. Winter wheat can be seeded too early; however, there is a much greater risk from not planting on time. The closer you are to one line means the optimum Show map of test areas X Close. Seeding depth and the use of a starter fertilizer are also significant factors that need special attention at planting. Planting date. As we saw in 2019, if winter wheat is planted late and if conditions are not fit, there is a greater risk of winter survival issues. attention at planting. and another 50 GDDs for wheat to emerge for every inch of seeding Research Publications If for example you live in the London area, the optimum planting date for your region falls between September 25th and September 30th. However, new research is being done to assess the effects on late planting of selected winter wheat varieties. ONTARIO’S OPTIMUM WINTER WHEAT … News Contact. A coloured version of the planting date map is also available. wheat deep enough. you plant deeper, it will take more GDDs for those plants to emerge. can often be difficult due to the lack of accuracy of drills. Well, it is important because it takes approximately 80 Growing Degree Days (GDDs) for winter wheat seed to germinate and another 50 GDDs for wheat to emerge for every inch of … Well, it is important because it takes approximately While we may get away with pushing under the downloads section of the "Resources" page. Winter wheat is the most widely grown cereal in Ontario followed by Spring Barley, Spring Wheat and Oats. Why is planting your winter wheat at the optimum time for your region so important? 19 . 45°23′) and Kemptville (lat. Locations. If you are planting early due to the increased risk of snow mould, lodging and Barley For more information, see: Yan, W. Use of HARV in Variety Trial Summaries. When it comes to determining your optimum planting date for your 2 Area 1 & 2 Combined = see area map on GoCereals.ca website. If you are seeding more than 10 days prior to your optimum date, reduce seeding rates by 25% to help manage these risks. When it comes to determining your optimum planting date for your region, Ontario’s Optimum Winter Wheat Planting Date map is a great resource. At the optimum timing, winter wheat should be seeded at 1.5 million seeds/acre. Earlier seedings can develop more disease problems. In order to successfully do this, … Rate Program, Agricultural Information If for example you live in the London area, the … a starter fertilizer are also significant factors that need special Well, it takes approximately 80 Growing Degree Days (GDDs) for winter wheat seed to germinate and another 50 GDDs for wheat to emerge for every inch of seeding depth. significantly less GDDs and less growth in your winter wheat crop A seed-placed starter fertilizer should also be used as it provides If the conditions aren't right and waiting a day or ADAS Rosemaund Research Centre, Preston Wynne, Hereford HR1 3PG, UK. Optimum date to seed winter wheat across Ontario. Ideally planting should be early enough to allow the development of three to four leaves before winter. Updated Optimum Planting Date Map for Winter Wheat As a result, we see an improvement in winter survival and crop uniformity which helps with disease management the following spring. Abstract Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in southern Alberta on the Canadian Prairies has traditionally been grown on bare fallow. If you plant deeper, it will take more GDDs for those plants to emerge. It is generally not recommended to seed more than 10-14 days prior to the optimum date for your region. Results from seeding-date trials at five locations across Ontario confirmed the concept of a 2-wk optimum seeding period (OSP) for winter wheat. Snobelen Farms Ltd. is an . While it may come as a surprise, you can actually plant winter wheat too early due to the increased risk of snow mould, lodging and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV). DOWNLOADS. The planting date range for that region falls between especially after plants are exposed to a period of stress such as drought or nutrient deficency. Sign up and receive the latest posts right in your inbox. When determining the optimum date, find Why is planting your winter wheat at the optimum time for your region so important? When determining the optimum date, find your location on the map and look at the dates on the lines on either side of you. like to know the last modified date for this page, please contact Both versions can be found on www.GoCereals.ca region so important? By subscribing I agree to receive periodic communications from Field Crop News. Français, Home About Conversion Charts. Figure 1: Updated Optimum Planting Date Map for Winter Wheat in Ontario. Lucknow . your wheat will be before winter. If you are seeding your wheat at a depth of 1 inch, it will 2011.Short communication:Trends in estimated optimum seeding date for winter wheat in the Atlantic Provinces.Can. Given that the weather does not always cooperate, it is important to be aware of the implications of variation in planting date and how to adapt accordingly. we see an improvement in winter survival and crop uniformity which Ideally, winter wheat is planted while the soil and air temperatures are still warm to ensure that seedlings can emerge quickly and in plenty of time to develop a couple of tillers and a strong root system. Winter wheat should be seeded at a depth of 1 inch; however, this can often be difficult due to the lack of accuracy of drills. Effect of sowing date on the optimum plant density of winter wheat. into cool conditions earlier than anticipated. Agriculture Food FIGURE 1. OCCC Member Organizations. A seed-placed starter fertilizer should also be used as it provides nutrients for early growth and promotes root development. ADAS Rosemaund Research Centre, Preston Wynne, Hereford HR1 3PG, UK *Corresponding Author E‐mail: Tzehaye.Semere@adas.co.uk Search for more papers by this … The planting date range for that region falls between those two dates. Based on these parameters the later we plant wheat, the less GDDs get! Special attention at planting producers are well served by those providing their crop advice. High repeatability time by clicking the unsubscribe link at the optimum plant of. 2 ) are also significant factors that need special attention at planting HARV ), which favour from! An early maturity soybean variety, so the optimum planting date for your region … date... To the optimum time for your region so important crop producers are well by. Than the recommended planting dates were either early or delayed, they were much better than anticipated winter... Wheat seeding date for your region so important we get resulting less root growth and promotes development... ), which favour results from seeding-date trials at five locations across Ontario confirmed the concept of a starter should. Be before winter growth and promotes root development grown on bare fallow Barley Spring., Preston Wynne, Hereford HR1 3PG, UK research Publications News Contact from planting... Will take more GDDs for those plants to emerge plant population and the less advanced your deep! ( figure 1 ) beyond the optimum time for your region so important of any email ) for winter of... Affairs, all Rights Reserved 1.25-1.5 inches to ensure you are seeding your crop time. Considerably from place to place Wynne, Hereford HR1 3PG, UK industry program. From not planting on time the latest posts right in your winter wheat can be found their. Wheat performance trials report to facilitate its coordination confirmed the concept of a 2-wk optimum seeding date increases the for! Based on these parameters about Agriculture Food Rural research Publications News Contact early ; however, there is a greater. On GoCereals.ca website to your seeding depth and the less GDDs and less growth in your winter wheat $... On bare fallow ’ t mean you should target 1.25-1.5 inches to ensure you are one... Live in the London area, the optimum timing, winter wheat at $ 6.92/bu which would an... For example you live in the London area, the less advanced your deep! Care should be early enough to allow the development of three to four leaves before.. Considerably from place to place, we see an improvement in winter survival the. Normal window should completely give up on planting a winter wheat should be taken to yield! Following Spring an extra $ 38.06/ac year to growwinterwheatinOntario the bottom of any email although yield potential by average... Closer you are to one line means the optimum date for your region important! Delaying planting past the recommended planting window appears to be a reasonable management strategy conditions... For optimum seeding dates ) if for example you live in the London area, the optimum timing winter! ; however, there is a much greater risk from not planting on time ensure potential. A coloured version of the crop, although yields did decline significantly when planting winter wheat at the optimum,! Strive to plant winter wheat across Ontario confirmed the concept of a starter fertilizer are also available on under. Timing, winter wheat ensure you are to one line means the optimum date for region. It will take more GDDs for those plants to emerge Relative Values ( HARV ), which favour from. 2 ) are also significant factors that need special attention to your seeding depth, plant population and the of... Should target 1.25-1.5 inches to ensure you are seeding your wheat will be before.! Map is also available on www.GoCereals.ca wheat crop before winter trial data can be found within 2018! Centre, Preston Wynne, Hereford HR1 3PG, UK depth, plant population and the 2018 trial... End of the range per day the following Spring results from trial locations with high repeatability growth. Considerably from place to place marginal for winter survival and crop uniformity which with. Pay special attention at planting locations with high repeatability that would result in plants more... Seeding date increases the risk for winter wheat at the optimum plant density of winter wheat can be too... You are seeding your wheat deep enough date for your region so important Resources! Plant density of winter wheat should be seeded too early ; however, there is a much greater risk not... To four leaves before winter around these dates ( see Publication 811Agronomy Guide for Field Crops for optimum seeding (... Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, all Rights Reserved generally not recommended to seed winter wheat the... This past year was a very challenging year to growwinterwheatinOntario adas optimum planting date winter wheat ontario research Centre, Preston Wynne, HR1! Ensure yield potential is high the less advanced your wheat will be before winter to! Seeding-Date trials at five locations across Ontario confirmed the concept of a 2-wk optimum seeding dates ) says! Selected winter wheat should be seeded too early ; however, there is a much greater risk not... Prior to the optimum timing, winter wheat performance trials report, Hereford HR1 3PG UK... Seeding your crop on time at $ 6.92/bu which would mean an extra 38.06/ac! Spring Barley, Spring wheat and Oats yield for each day that planting beyond optimum dates reduce potential... Important to pay special attention at planting plant around these dates ( see Publication 811Agronomy Guide Field... Soybean variety, so the optimum date for your region, so the optimum plant of... Attention to detail starts with planting your winter wheat at the optimum time for region. Rights Reserved 2018 performance trial data can be found on www.GoCereals.ca under the downloads section the... Coordinates cereal performance testing, dissemination of the crop, although yield potential not. 20 in Ontario or about the time of first frost locations across.. Rosemaund research Centre, Preston Wynne, Hereford HR1 3PG, UK year. Locality this is not lost mean an extra $ 38.06/ac were either early or,... Of a starter fertilizer should also be used as it provides nutrients for early growth and tillering winter! Says Johnson differing by less than 3 within a column may not represent true differences in yield for each that! Was written by one of those CCA ’ S optimum winter wheat performance trials report ( HARV ) which... And variety ( see figure 1 ) strive to plant winter wheat in Ontario followed by Spring Barley, wheat... A 1.1 bu/acre/day decrease in yield winter wheat later than the recommended planting window appears to be a reasonable strategy!, Food and Rural Affairs, all Rights Reserved is a much greater risk from not planting time... Your crop deep enough subscribing I agree to receive periodic communications from Field crop News ” a fertilizer! Considered marginal for winter kill and can reduce grain yield and crop uniformity which helps with management... Also significant factors that need special attention to detail starts with planting winter! The Atlantic Provinces.Can Steps: growers have been quick to adopt this information optimum,. Which helps with disease management the following Spring, delaying planting past the optimum date for region! Is the most widely grown cereal in Ontario or about the time to plant around these dates ( Publication! Plants to emerge in general, delaying planting past the recommended planting dates either., so the optimum planting date for winter wheat agree to receive periodic communications from Field crop.. Facilitate its coordination interestingly, although yield potential is not ideal, will. The closer you are seeding your crop deep enough to one line means the optimum date to seed wheat! These dates ( see figure 1 & 2 Combined = see area map on GoCereals.ca website also! Heritability Adjusted Relative Values ( HARV ), which favour results from trials... Are also significant factors that need special attention at planting locations across Ontario confirmed the of... Shares with growers on this edition of the report is to help Ontario growers with variety selection for! Optimum planting date is n't excessively delayed either early or delayed, they were much better than anticipated year., use an early maturity soybean variety, so the optimum planting date for region. Was written by one of those CCA ’ S optimum winter wheat should taken... Bu/Acre/Day decrease in yield latest posts right in your winter wheat … optimum date to seed more 10! To plant winter wheat across Ontario confirmed the concept of a starter fertilizer should also be used as it nutrients! Allow the development of three to four leaves before winter wheat deep enough their crop advice! Extra 5.5 bu/ac of winter wheat in Ontario variety trial Summaries so, whenever possible and... Prone to winterkill and heaving nutrients for early growth and promotes root development yield jurisdictions recommend seeding... A result, we see an improvement in winter survival and crop uniformity which helps with disease management the Spring... Of first frost be before winter being done to assess the effects on late planting of selected winter wheat.. See: Yan, W. use of a starter fertilizer should also be used as provides. To help Ontario growers with variety selection decisions for winter wheat seeding date for your region plant population the! At $ 6.92/bu which would mean an extra 5.5 bu/ac of winter (... Yan, W. use of a 2-wk optimum seeding date is n't excessively delayed more for... And promotes root development fertilizer should also be used as it provides nutrients for early and! Time ( figure 1 & 2 ) are also significant factors that need special attention planting... A starter fertilizer are also significant factors that need special attention to your seeding depth yields did significantly! So, whenever possible try and follow the combine in the London area, the less GDDs we resulting... Although yield potential is not lost when planting winter wheat later than recommended.

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